There are different schools in the study of psychology namely; the structuralism, the functionalism, the Gestalt psychology, the behaviorism, the psychoanalysis, the humanism and the cognitive psychology.
Structuralism deals with the study of the structure of the mind as well as on the elements that are associated with it. The advocated of structuralism used the method of Introspection, this school of Psychology are lead by Wundt and Titchener.
Functionalism involves on the study of the functions of consciousness rather than studying the structure of the mind. The advocates of functionalism also include intelligence, the personality and other practical problems especially in the field of education.
According to them, the study of the learning process is important since learning is man’s means in adjusting to his or her environment. The school of functionalism began its development at the University of Chicago under John Dewey and James Angell and in Harvard University under William James.
Gestalt psychology is the school of Psychology that analyzed experience by configuration in whole or pattern. The Gestalt Psychologist emphasizes the importance of what they called as the wholeness in the learning process. According to the Gestalt Psychologist advocates, the whole is greater than the sum of its part. Furthermore, they give emphasis on the importance of what they called as form of perception.
They believed that the shapes as well as the forms need to be described by the organization of the entire field of perception. The Gestalt psychology was introduced by Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler and Koffha; they are a group of German Psychologist.
Behaviorism is the school that believes that the concern of the science of Psychology should be the behaviors and not the conscious experience. They stressed that behaviors are observable while the conscious experience is subjective and this is known only to the individual that is involved. The school of behaviorism was developed at John Hopkins University and was lead by Professor John B. Watson.
Psychoanalysis was developed by Dr. Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis explains the physical as well as the nervous and the emotional disorders with regards to the organic explanations. The theory of psychoanalysis deals with the analysis on the subconscious mind and to its effect on the conscious mind.
Humanism is the school that believes that every individual has the desire for what is good. According to the humanist, human actions like criminality or delinquency are influenced by environmental factor which eventually affects the proper development of an individual.
Cognitive Psychology works towards the understanding about the human brain, its basic function and operation. It can be considered as a blend of humanism and behaviorism. It gives emphasis and importance in the processes of thought, problem solving as well as reasoning.
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