There are different languages and dialects in the world. Some are widely use while some are only used by a small village or by a group of people. Despite of differences from language to language or dialects to dialects, they share some common characteristics.
There are four areas in the study of language; these are the phonology, the grammar, the semantics and the pragmatics.
Phonology is the system of sounds that is use by a particular language. It includes the basic units of sounds as well as the rules in how we put phonemes together in order to form words. It alsoincludes the rules that correspond with regards to the proper intonation patterns for the phrases as well as sentences.
The phonemes are considered as the basic units of sounds. This is because phonemes are the smallest units of sounds that can affect meaning; it means that when we change the phonemes, we also change the meaning of a particular word.
Grammar is concern on the structure of a language consisting of two major parts namely: Syntax and Morphology.
It is the syntax that specifies how words are combined into the sentences. The syntax rule is to allow us to make variations in word order allowing us to say what we want without limitation.
Morphology is concern in thestudy of the smallest unit of meaning in language, called as morphemes (prefixes, suffixes and root words). It also deals on how these small units of meaning are combined properly. Part of the language’s morphological system are the rules for altering root words, produces plurals, past tense, inflections and others.
Semantics is a component of language which is concern in the study of word combinations and meanings. Language comprehension either spoken or written does not only require knowledge on their specific words and their definitions. It also requires on how we are going to use these words as well as on how we make combinations to this words whether in clauses, phrases, or sentences. Semantic knowledge continues to grow such as in school children; they tend to mature intellectually as they continue to study throughout their school years.
The pragmatics is the component of language that is consist of rules concerning for the use of the appropriate language that is suited for a particular context. It is not only concerned with way the way of speaking and writing. It is also concerned with the social interaction that takes place.